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Micro and Nano-Biosensors with Invasive Monitoring, pgs 32-35

IMPLANTS

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A wireless body area network of intelligent motion sensors for computer assisted physical rehabilitation
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Implantable hearing aid can be charged wirelessly
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Midfield Powering for Implantable Systems
William Pawalec-Stolen Technology Video
The Five Senses of Sensors
Powering Implants
Cochlear Implants
Wearable and Implantable Sensor
Unassigned
How Many People Are Chipped?
MEMS and NEMS Neurostimulators
Unassigned
Introduction
 
Are you a Targeted Individual?  Do you have strange vibrations, painful sensations and pressure in and on your body?  There are general sensations which make you feel vibrations or heat, an implant provides a tool to torture you repeatedly or continuously in the same place.
 
This misused technology uses implants to guide energy (inductive coupling) to your body to produce psychological effects and physiological pain. This page will provide links to articles you can print and show to the uninformed and nonbeliever to prove that these technologies exist, you know about them and that they are being used illegally on you against your will to degrade your health and rob you of your life, liberty and pursuit of happiness. Happiness requires control of your own mind and body and freedom to choose who to socialize with or to be left alone to develop your own thoughts. If someone takes control of your ability to think for yourself, you are no longer free to pursue anything. Technology can deprive you of the life God gave you and it can take all your rights away. The government is doing this to Targeted Individuals and has been taking the lives of humans in the name of research for decades in human experiments. 
 
Beaming radio and microwave frequencies at someone to injure or cause them pain is a criminal assault. Assault deprives you of your Constitutional right to refuse this technology. The US Constitution assures your freedom from human experimentation, however, recent Executive Orders are allowing this assaault.
 
The Patriot Act was hastily signed to institute an illegal War on Terror using so-called non-lethal weapons using directed energy and implants for tracking and punishment. The US Government and other countries are using the technology to torture people using a 24 hour regimen of sleep deprivation, repeated covert implantation, vibration of the whole body and body parts, radiation burning and maiming, inducement of diseases such as diabetes and joint degradation, body modification (reducing bones in size and reducing cartilage from ears and face) and other cruel and unusual acts which take away the freedom God gave us and the life the Constitution assures us.
 
The first article I have chosen is a brilliant overview of implants, both chronic (permanent) and acute (temporary). Implants are a medical procedure and when they are done covertly, they constitute vandalism of personal property and institution of slavery over a human being. You no longer own you body and its functions. Someone else has control over your body, therefore, you are their slave.
 
You may make a personal decision based on what you know about who is doing this to you.  However, this plan is outlined in the Patriot Act. The US Goverment contracts with companies who hire people who oversee your individual torture, keep a detailed record of when implants were done, what was done to torture you each day and a personal overall plan for your individual torture.  How do we know this?  Different people talk about how they are tortured, some are the same, some are different but fit the implant/torture criteria, some being age dependent.  Different types of implants are in different people.  Someone chooses which implants will be used to torture each individual. Who are these people and where do they go to work every day.  How long are their shifts?  How much are they paid?  Do they have a retirement plan?  How long will you be tortured.  All indications are that once you are in the torture program, it is for life.
 
Where are the radio/microwave/ultrasound frequencies coming from, your neighbor's homes, city/utility infrastructure, cell towers, satellites, or all of them, using installations as relays of energy beams. Hopefully by learning about what kind of implants you have, you can find out what they need in the way of power or stimulation from outside sources and connect your implants with the source of energy being used to torture you and the people doing it. There is much work to be done on this subject.
 
If you work at a job torturing people and decide to become a whistleblower, please step forward and help humanity before they do this to you too.  It is inevitable that everyone will become sick, handicapped or just elderly.  These are the people they are attacking first to cleanse humanity like Hitler did. He emptied the hospitals and used nurses and doctors to do it.  That didn't last and neither will this regime against life and liberty.  Good will prevail.

"The Plutonium Files (book cover)" by Eileen Welsome.
The experiments which began in 1945 were designed to ascertain the detailed effect of radiation on human health. Most of the subjects, were poor, powerless, and sick. From 1945 to 1947, 18 people were injected with plutonium by Manhattan project doctors. Ebb Cade was injected  with 4.7 micrograms of Plutonium on April 10, 1945 at Oak Ridge, Tennessee. under the supervision of Harold Hodge. The Plutonium Files chronicles the lives of the subjects of the secret program by naming each person involved and discussing the ethical and medical research conducted in secret by the scientists and doctors. Medical experiments of the Manhattan Project program was led by Dr. Joseph Gilbert Hamilton.

Figure 2. Graphical impression of microsystems for chronic implantable applications. The capital letter next to the figure refers to the main section in which this example is described in the text. S = Sensors in section 2.1 ;E = Electrical stimulation and sensing in section 2.2 ;D = micromachined drug and gene delivery devices in section 2.3 ;U = micromachined ultrasound transducers in section 2.4 ;M = microoptoelectro mechanical systems in section 2.5 and O = Microsystem technologies for other implantable applications in section 2.6 .  

Microsystem technologies for implantable applications

This paper presents a general and broad literature review of Microsystem technologies (MST) for implantable biomedical devices. The microfabricated parts span a wide range for implantable applications in various clinical areas. The major technology–market combinations are sensors for cardiovascular, drug delivery for drug delivery and electrodes for neurology and ophthalmology. Pressure sensors form the majority of sensors and there is just one product (considered to be an implantable microsystem) in the neurological area. Micro-machined ceramic packages, glass sealed packages and polymer encapsulations are used. Glass to metal seals are used for feedthroughs. Interconnection techniques such as flip chip, wirebonding or conductive epoxy as used in the semiconductor packaging and assembly industry are also used for manufacturing of implantable devices. Coatings are polymers or metal. As an alternative to implantable primary batteries, rechargeable batteries were introduced or concepts in which energy is provided from the outside based on inductive coupling. Long-term developments aiming at autonomous power are, for example, based on electrostatic conversion of mechanical vibrations. Communication with the implantable device is usually done using an inductive link. A large range of materials commonly used in microfabrication are also used for implantable microsystems. 
 
 

Microsystem technologies for implantable applications
 

Articles About Body Area Networks

IMPLANTS THAT MAY BE PART OF TORTURE SYSTEM IN TI'S

Stanford engineers develop tiny, sound-powered chip to serve as medical device
 
Abstract
Many applications of ultrasound for sensing, actuation and imaging require miniaturized and low power transducers and transducer arrays integrated with electronic systems. Piezoelectric micromachined ultrasound transducers (PMUTs), diaphragm-like thin film flexural transducers typically formed on silicon substrates, are a potential solution for integrated transducer arrays. This paper presents an overview of the current development status of PMUTs and a discussion of their suitability for miniaturized and integrated devices. The thin film piezoelectric materials required to functionalize these devices are discussed, followed by the microfabrication techniques used to create PMUT elements and the constraints the fabrication imposes on device design. Approaches for electrical interconnection and integration with on-chip electronics are discussed. Electrical and acoustic measurements from fabricated PMUT arrays with up to 320 diaphragm elements are presented. The PMUTs are shown to be broadband devices with an operating frequency which is tunable by tailoring the lateral dimensions of the flexural membrane or the thicknesses of the constituent layers. Finally, the outlook for future development of PMUT technology and the potential applications made feasible by integrated PMUT devices are discussed
 
Goal:  ULTRAsponder will develop an innovative intelligent ultrasonic transponder system for biomedical applications. 

The objectives are:
  • To develop innovative wireless data and energy transmission techniques for ultra low power sensor/actuator nodes
  • To advance in ultrasonic transponders technology, for actuating and either intermittently or continuously monitoring parameters in biological applications with focus on miniaturization, power consumption, functionality, production and cost aspects
  • To prove the concept by developing a new technology for a network of ultra-low power transponders deeply implanted inside the body for long term periods
  • To assess the overall system in a real environment for a particular application aimed at measuring physiological parameters and correlating them to prove advanced diagnostics
  • To contribute to the standardization of Body Sensor Networks of nodes powered by and communicating through ultrasonic technique
 
The key innovations are:
  • Transponder node based on absolutely new acoustic wireless signals transmission techniques for transponders immersed in aqueous mediums
  • Wireless energy transmission techniques (energy scavenging) for ultra low power sensor/actuator nodes
  • Backscattering technique for bidirectional acoustic wireless data transmission
  • Beamforming technique in the external unit to minimize communication and energization times
  • Small footprint, high flexibility, modular and generic, easily adaptable to any microsystemLocal massive signal processing capabilities 
 
Applications:
  • .Pacemakers, Cardioverter / Defibrillator
  • .Implantable physiological monitors
  • .Neurostimulators
  • .Implantable insulin pumps
  • .Bladder control devices
 
Competencies:
  • -Ultrasound physics
  • Acoustical transducer design
  • Microelectronics and ultra low power design
    Digital Signal Processing
    Packaging
  • In vivo experimentation
     
Framework:
EU project #224009
 
Intravascular wireless pressure monitoring sensors are nothing new. As our readers might remember , CardioMEMS Inc’s EndoSure™ Wireless AAA Pressure Measurement System, a device we’ve seen before, has been 510(k)’ed by the FDA. Now researchers from Germany’s Fraunhofer Institute for Microelectronic Circuits and Systems are reporting that they are designing a smaller, and maybe even better, intravascular arterial pressure monitoring device:
 
If a person’s blood flows through their arteries at too high a pressure, even when they are lying still on the sofa, they could be in danger. High blood pressure causes the heart to constantly pump at full speed, which strains both the heart and vessel walls. Drugs can provide relief, but in many cases the patient’s blood pressure is still difficult to regulate and has to be consistently monitored over a long period of time. This is a tedious process: Patients have to wear a small case containing the blood pressure meter close to their body. An inflatable sleeve on their arm records their blood pressure values, for which it is regularly pumped up and deflated. This is a burden on the patients, particularly at night. The whole process is now due to become easier thanks to a tiny implant that could replace the current method. It is being developed by Fraunhofer researchers together with the company Dr. Osypka GmbH and other partners in a BMBF-funded project called “Hyper-IMS” (Intravascular Monitoring System for Hypertension Patients).

“A doctor introduces the pressure sensor directly into the femoral artery in the groin,” explains head of department Dr. Hoc Khiem Trieu of the Fraunhofer Institute for Microelectronic Circuits and Systems IMS in Duisburg. “The sensor, which has a diameter of about one millimeter including its casing, measures the patient’s blood pressure 30 times per second. It is connected via a flexible micro-cable to a transponder unit, which is likewise implanted in the groin under the skin. This unit digitizes and encodes the data coming from the micro-sensor and transmits them to an external reading device that patients can wear like a cell phone on their belt. From there, the readings can be forwarded to a monitoring station and analyzed by the doctor.” Because the researchers use special components in CMOS technology, the system requires little energy. The micro-implants can be supplied with electricity wirelessly via coils.

Implantable pressure sensors are also suitable for other applications, such as monitoring patients suffering from cardiac insufficiency. The researchers are currently performing the first clinical trials.
 
A Single-Channel Implantable Microstimulator for Functional Neuromuscular Stimulation
This paper describes the development of an implantable, single-channel microstimulator that belongs to the third generation of FNS systems. We have used miniature hybrid components along with microelectronics technology to develop a device small enough to be implanted through a gauge-12 hypodermic needle (outer diameter = 2.75 mm lumen diameter = 2.15 mm). The microstimulator receives power and data through an inductively coupled link and has overall dimensions of 2 x 2 x 10 mm3 . It consists of: 1) a silicon substrate supporting a stimulating electrode at each end and providing multiple feedthroughs, 2) a receiver circuit chip, 3) a hybrid capacitor used for charge storage of the stimulation pulse, 4) a hybrid receiver coil for power and data reception, and 5) a custom-made glass capsule which is electrostatically bonded to the substrate to protect the receiver circuitry and hybrid elements from body fluids (the device should remain functional for 40 years). By using a hermetic silicon-glass packaging technique with multiple feedthroughs, it is possible to increase the number of stimulation channels in future systems (this can be done by increasing the length of the silicon substrate and placing more electrodes on it).
Microsystems in Biomedical systems
WIRELESS MICROSTIMULATORS
Considering the properties of the neural tissue, different types of energy transfer mechanisms have been proposed for energizing the implant wirelessly: electromagnetic radio-frequency (RF), optical, and acoustic. The acoustic waves implanted electrode(s) may or may not have active electronics for storing the pulse parameters. Active devices also require an energy storage mechanism for powering the circuit. On the other hand, passive devices that can instantaneously convert the incident energy into the electric stimulus do not need to store energy or require programming, often maximizing the stimulus energy and implantation depth.
 
Wireless Microstimulators
 
Doctors in Swedenbegan placing brain transmitters in the heads of anesthetized patients without the persons’ knowledge in about 1960. The insertion was conducted through the nostrils and took only a couple of minutes to perform. Implanted devices can remain in a person’s head for life. The energy to activate the implants is transmitted by way of radio waves. Professor José Delgado wrote about the technology in Physical Control of the Mind in 1969.
 
The Technology and Its Possibilities
 
Brain transmitters have been thought to be impossible by the majority of people and have been relegated to science fiction. The fact is that scientists developed the technology into reality at least forty years ago.[1]
 
By means of two-way radio communication called telemetry, or remote control, one can send wavelengths round trip to a brain transmitter in a person’s head. The wavelengths flow through a person’s brain, then return to a computer where all aspects of a human being’s life are uncovered and analyzed.
 
To allow brain waves, measured by electroencephalograph (EEG), to be analyzed by a computer instead of through a printout offers new possibilities of interpretation. The charting of mental thoughts, vision, hearing, feelings, and behavioral reactions can lead to an analysis of the foundation of personality. It allows one to study the psyche more completely. In addition, one can follow chemical reactions, observe patterns of neurons, or follow an illness or disease and analyze it at an earlier stage of development. All of the above and much more can be discovered with bio-medical telemetry.[2]
 
Two-way radio communication throughout the world to the brain was possible by the late 1950s.
During the 1960s, brain transmitters as small as a half of a cigarette filter made it possible for doctors to implant them in patients easily and without surgery.[3]  This was done in many ways. For example, vocal messages could be sent by radio waves to receivers placed in the head, where a person with an attached transmitter could answer directly to a central location with his thoughts, by brain waves data (EEG) carried with radio signals.[4] Distances were not a problem, since radio waves could travel globally at the speed of light.
 
Liquid crystals which are injected directly into the bloodstream and fasten themselves to the brain have been developed in the last ten years. It works on the same principle as the usual transmitters and uses the same technology and contains the same possibilities.[5] [6]   https://sites.google.com/site/mcrais/brain6
Rap music powers rhythmic action of medical sensor
 
The driving bass rhythm of rap music can be harnessed to power a new type of miniature medical sensor designed to be implanted in the body.
 
"The music reaches the correct frequency only at certain times, for example, when there is a strong bass component," he said. "The acoustic energy from the music can pass through body tissue, causing the cantilever to vibrate. Nothing happens when you stop playing music," says Babak Ziaie, a Purdue University professor of electrical and computer engineering and biomedical engineering.. The implant works only when exposed to specific frequencies.
 
When the frequency falls outside of the proper range, the cantilever stops vibrating, automatically sending the electrical charge to the sensor, which takes a pressure reading and transmits data as radio signals. Because the frequency is continually changing according to the rhythm of a musical composition, the sensor can be induced to repeatedly alternate intervals of storing charge and transmitting data.
 
The device is an example of a microelectromechanical system, or MEMS, and was created in the Birck Nanotechnology Center. The cantilever beam is made from a ceramic material called lead zirconate titanate, or PZT, which is piezoelectric, meaning it generates electricity when compressed. The sensor is about 2 centimeters long. A receiver that picks up the data from the sensor could be placed several inches from the patient.
Researchers experimented with four types of music: rap, blues, jazz and rock. "Rap is the best because it contains a lot of low frequency sound, notably the bass," Ziaie said.'  http://www.element14.com/community/groups/energy-harvesting-solutions/blog/2013/03/28/rap-music-powers-rhythmic-action-of-medical-sensor

(A new type of miniature pressure sensor, shown above, designed to be implanted in the body is generating a charge to power the sensor from acoustiv waves.)

The heart of the sensor is a vibrating cantilever, a thin beam attached
at one end like a miniature diving board. Music within a certain range
of frequencies causes the cantilever to vibrate, generating electricity
and storing a charge in a capacitor, said Babak Ziaie.

Drug Release by Remote Control

Author: Adrian Neal
 
Getting a medicine to exactly where it is needed in the body is often a major challenge. Traditional routes of drug delivery tend to be inefficient ways of treating conditions and can lead to side effects. One potential solution is to implant a course of the drug that self-administers over time at the site in the body it is needed. However, controlling the release of the drug once implanted is difficult. Ideally, doctors or patients would be able to trigger the release of a desired amount of drug from the implant on demand.

To address this need, Cecilia Leal and John Rogers, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA, and colleagues have constructed an electronic device in which drugs are embedded in lipid membranes. These membranes are arranged to form a number of individual drug reservoirs, each of which is served by a heating element. The structure of these membranes is altered upon turning on the element, which can be wirelessly controlled from outside the body. This provides a precise, user-controlled, localized release of drug into the surrounding tissue.

The device was tested in a range of in vitro experiments and in mice, and showed no drug leakage, as well as a high level of user control that the researchers expect can be tuned by altering the lipid composition. Furthermore, the device is entirely composed of biocompatible and biodegradable materials, meaning that it does not have to be surgically removed, instead it simply dissolves.
 

Courtney R. Thomas
Publication Date (Web): July 16, 2010
 
Mesoporous silica nanoparticles are useful nanomaterials that have demonstrated the ability to contain and release cargos with mediation by gatekeepers. Magnetic nanocrystals have the ability to exhibit hyperthermic effects when placed in an oscillating magnetic field. In a system combining these two materials and a thermally sensitive gatekeeper, a unique drug delivery system can be produced. A novel material that incorporates zinc-doped iron oxide nanocrystals within a mesoporous silica framework that has been surface-modified with pseudorotaxanes is described. Upon application of an AC magnetic field, the nanocrystals generate local internal heating, causing the molecular machines to disassemble and allowing the cargos (drugs) to be released. When breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231) were treated with doxorubicin-loaded particles and exposed to an AC field, cell death occurred. This material promises to be a noninvasive, externally controlled drug delivery system with cancer-killing properties.

Miniature ultrasonically powered wireless nerve cuff stimulator

We present a wireless neural stimulator composed of only three discrete components. The capsule was 8 mm long and was designed to be clasped directly upon a peripheral nerve. Power was supplied by low-intensity 1 MHz ultrasound transmitted into the body. The prototype was capable of generating currents in excess of 1 mA. For in vivo testing the device was implanted in a rat hind limb on the sciatic nerve, and when insonated with pulse intensities of 10-150 mW/cm2 the stimulator excited motor axons inducing predictable contractions of the lower leg muscles.
 
http://www.cluster-heads.org/en/index.php/spg-stimulation
Q. What is an animal microchip implant?

A. An animal microchip implant, also known as a “transponder,” is similar to a human microchip implant. (1-2)  It is a cylindrical capsule that contains of a radio frequency identification (RFID) device, a tuning capacitor and a copper antenna coil. Although most of the capsules are made of glass, some are made of a polymer material. (3-5)

The approximate size of the majority of pet microchip implants is 12 mm in length and 2 mm in width. A “MiniChip” is also available and it is reported to be “one third the size of the standard microchip.” (6)

Current animal microchip implants store an identification number and do not have an internal power source or moving parts.

Q. Are all animal microchip implants the same?

A. There are a variety of animal microchip implants that operate at different frequencies. For example: 125 kilohertz (kHz), 128 kHz and 134.2 kHz. Also, some chips are referred to as ISO (International Standards Organization) chips and others as non-ISO chips. The total number of digits that make up the identification number may vary depending on the brand of microchip. Some chips are encrypted and others are not encrypted.
injectable implantable micromechanical ultrasound transponders
 
http://www.intechopen.com/books/small-scale-energy-harvesting/electrostatic-conversion-for-vibration-energy-harvesting
 
http://einj.org/journal/view.php?viewtype=cited&number=534
 
 
http://www.intechopen.com/books/small-scale-energy-harvesting/piezoelectric-mems-power-generators-for-vibration-energy-harvesting
 
http://www.researchgate.net/publication/13911335_A_single-channel_implantable_microstimulator_for_functional_neuromuscular_stimulation
 
http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?arnumber=7047228
 
http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?arnumber=7047228
 
http://www.mdpi.com/1424-8220/8/9/6077/htm
 
http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/login.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4456760&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fiel5%2F8860%2F4456737%2F04456760.pdf%3Farnumber%3D4456760
 
http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/login.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6957600&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fiel7%2F22%2F6971049%2F06957600.pdf%3Farnumber%3D6957600
 
https://my.vanderbilt.edu/stormlab/files/2013/01/SA_Ciuti_Dario.pdf
 
http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2015/cs/c4cs00116h/unauth#!divAbstract
 
http://doktora.kirbas.com/Eng%20Makaleler/system%20architecture%20of%20a%20wireless%20body%20area%20sensor%20network%20for%20ubiquitous%20health%20monitoring.pdf
SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE OF A WIRELESS BODY AREA SENSOR NETWORK
FOR UBIQUITOUS HEALTH MONITORING

 
NASA DEVELOPS SYSTEM TO COMPUTERIZE SILENT, 'SUBVOCAL SPEECH'
 
NASA scientists have begun to computerize human, silent reading using nerve signals in the throat that control speech.
In preliminary experiments, NASA scientists found that small, button-sized sensors, stuck under the chin and on either side of the 'Adam's apple,' could gather nerve signals, and send them to a processor and then to a computer program that translates them into words. Eventually, such 'subvocal speech' systems could be used in spacesuits, in noisy places like airport towers to capture air-traffic controller commands, or even in traditional voice-recognition programs to increase accuracy, according to NASA scientists.
 
"What is analyzed is silent, or subauditory, speech, such as when a person silently reads or talks to himself," said Chuck Jorgensen, a scientist whose team is developing silent, subvocal speech recognition at NASA Ames Research Center in California's Silicon Valley. "Biological signals arise when reading or speaking to oneself with or without actual lip or facial movement," Jorgensen explained. "A person using the subvocal system thinks of phrases and talks to himself so quietly, it cannot be heard, but the tongue and vocal cords do receive speech signals from the brain," Jorgensen said.
 
In their first experiment, scientists 'trained' special software to recognize six words and 10 digits that the researchers repeated subvocally. Initial word recognition results were an average of 92 percent accurate. The first subvocal words the system 'learned' were 'stop,' 'go,' 'left,' 'right,' 'alpha' and 'omega,' and the digits 'zero' through 'nine.' Silently speaking these words, scientists conducted simple searches on the Internet by using a number chart representing the alphabet to control a Web browser program.
 
"We took the alphabet and put it into a matrix -- like a calendar. We numbered the columns and rows, and we could identify each letter with a pair of single-digit numbers," Jorgensen said. "So we silently spelled out 'NASA' and then submitted it to a well-known Web search engine. We electronically numbered the Web pages that came up as search results. We used the numbers again to choose Web pages to examine. This proved we could browse the Web without touching a keyboard," Jorgensen explained.
 
Scientists are testing new, 'noncontact' sensors that can read muscle signals even through a layer of clothing. A second demonstration will be to control a mechanical device using a simple set of commands, according to Jorgensen. His team is planning tests with a simulated Mars rover. "We can have the model rover go left or right using silently 'spoken' words," Jorgensen said. People in noisy conditions could use the system when privacy is needed, such as during telephone conversations on buses or trains, according to scientists.
 
"An expanded muscle-control system could help injured astronauts control machines. If an astronaut is suffering from muscle weakness due to a long stint in microgravity, the astronaut could send signals to software that would assist with landings on Mars or the Earth, for example," Jorgensen explained. "A logical spin-off would be that handicapped persons could use this system for a lot of things."
 
To learn more about what is in the patterns of the nerve signals that control vocal cords, muscles and tongue position, Ames scientists are studying the complex nerve-signal patterns. "We use an amplifier to strengthen the electrical nerve signals. These are processed to remove noise, and then we process them to see useful parts of the signals to show one word from another," Jorgensen said.
 
After the signals are amplified, computer software 'reads' the signals to recognize each word and sound. "The keys to this system are the sensors, the signal processing and the pattern recognition, and that's where the scientific meat of what we're doing resides," Jorgensen explained. "We will continue to expand the vocabulary with sets of English sounds, usable by a full speech-recognition computer program."
The Computing, Information and Communications Technology Program, part of NASA's Office of Exploration Systems, funds the subvocal word-recognition research. There is a patent pending for the new technology.
 
http://amesnews.arc.nasa.gov/releases/2004/subvocal/subvocal.html
Authentication by Heart: Radar's New Role in Biometrics
 
Created on Sunday, 01 November 2015
Terms:  Wireless Vital Sign Monitoring, Doppler Radar
 
Named after the Austrian physicist Christian Doppler, the Doppler effect is a fundamental frequency shift phenomenon that occurs whenever a wave source and an observer are moving with respect to one another. When a vehicle sounding a siren or horn approaches, passes, and recedes, for example, the bystanding observer will hear the sound higher during the approach, identical at the instant of passing by, and lower during the recession. The frequency increase has well established applications in astrophotonics, biological diagnostics, weather and aircraft radar systems, velocimetry, and vibrometry. For instance, ultrasonic pulse probes utilize this Doppler effect to detect the relative motion of blood flow in the human body.
 
Microwave Doppler radar has the capability to detect vital signs, such as heart and breathing function. Doppler radar achieves the findings by sensing mechanical displacements of the chest cavity in the order of millimeters, resulting from shock waves created by heart and respiration motion. This is known as Radar Seismocardiogram (R-SCG). Using the technology, other cardiac dynamic parameters/features that are unique to each person can be extracted.
In order to enable commercial applications for R-SCG devices, several key problems need to be overcome, including device cost and motion artifacts that distort the signal of interest. The cost and performance have dramatically improved with the advent of RF integrated circuits, contributing to the commercialization of small low-power radar units for many different purposes. It has been shown that high transmit power is not necessary to achieve good results with Doppler radar and some other detection methods, such as Ultra-Wide Band sensing that requires only -41dBm of output power and uses approximately 3 million times lower power than a typical smartphone.

Image Credit: Olea Sensor Networks™
The HeartSignature™ sensor scans the individual continuously for
real-time authentication, serving a number of high-security access
applications.