What is a Wireless Body Area Network?
A wireless body area network (WBAN) is a wireless network of wearable computing devices which may be implanted inside the body, worn or carried. Implanted devices are networks consisting of several miniaturized body sensor units (BSUs) together with a single body central unit (BCU). Smart devices or cell phones act as a data hub, data gateway, providing a user interface to view and manage BAN applications. A WBAN system can use WPAN wireless technologies as gateways to reach longer ranges. Through gateway devices, it is possible to connect the devices in the human body to the internet. This way, medical professionals can access patient data online using the internet independent of the patient location..
The system is touted as being healthcare, but in reality it is being used as an illegal surveillance which takes away the individuality, the privacy, the dignity and independence of a human being. Every activity is recorded. Someone watches every activity, including bathroom activities and having sex. Every heartbeat and breath can be monitored and recorded. Note that they communicate using satellites, and drones. TORTURE AND DEATH CAN BE ACCOMPLISHED WITH THIS SYSTEM AND THE MURDERERS WILL NEVER BE BROUGHT TO JUSTICE.
What is Biotelemetry?
Biotelemetry (or medical telemetry) involves the application of telemetry in biology, medicine, and other health care to remotely monitor various vital signs of ambulatory patients. Virtually any physiological signal could be transmitted.
A typical biotelemetry system is comprised of (1) sensors appropriate for the particular signals to be monitored, (2) a battery but some do not require batteries because they are stimulated with frequency or light (3) a radio antenna and receiver, and (4) a display unit or monitor to display information from patients.
Sensors 2011, 11(4), 3717-3737; https://doi.org/10.3390/s110403717
Published: 25 March 2011
:Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) consist of a limited number of battery operated nodes that are used to monitor the vital signs of a patient over long periods of time without restricting the patient’s movements. They are an easy and fast way to diagnose the patient’s status and to consult the doctor. Device as well as network lifetime are among the most important factors in a WBAN. Prolonging the lifetime of the WBAN strongly depends on controlling the energy consumption of sensor nodes. To achieve energy efficiency, low duty cycle MAC protocols are used, but for medical applications, especially in the case of pacemakers where data have time-limited relevance, these protocols increase latency which is highly undesirable and leads to system instability. In this paper, we propose a low power MAC protocol (VLPM) based on existing wakeup radio approaches which reduce energy consumption as well as improving the response time of a node. We categorize the traffic into uplink and downlink traffic. The nodes are equipped with both a low power wake-up transmitter and receiver. The low power wake-up receiver monitors the activity on channel all the time with a very low power and keeps the MCU (Micro Controller Unit) along with main radio in sleep mode. When a node [BN or BNC (BAN Coordinator)] wants to communicate with another node, it uses the low-power radio to send a wakeup packet, which will prompt the receiver to power up its primary radio to listen for the message that follows shortly. The wake-up packet contains the desired node’s ID along with some other information to let the targeted node to wake-up and take part in communication and let all other nodes to go to sleep mode quickly. The VLPM protocol is proposed for applications having low traffic conditions. For high traffic rates, optimization is needed. Analytical results show that the proposed protocol outperforms both synchronized and unsynchronized MAC protocols like T-MAC, SCP-MAC, B-MAC and X-MAC in terms of energy consumption and response time.
by Enrique Gonzalez, Published: 22 May 2015
This survey aims to encourage the multidisciplinary communities to join forces for innovation in the mobile health monitoring area. Specifically, multidisciplinary innovations in medical emergency scenarios can have a significant impact on the effectiveness and quality of the procedures and practices in the delivery of medical care. Wireless body sensor networks (WBSNs) are a promising technology capable of improving the existing practices in condition assessment and care delivery for a patient in a medical emergency. This technology can also facilitate the early interventions of a specialist physician during the pre-hospital period. WBSNs make possible these early interventions by establishing remote communication links with video/audio support and by providing medical information such as vital signs, electrocardiograms, etc. in real time. This survey focuses on relevant issues needed to understand how to setup a WBSN for medical emergencies. These issues are: monitoring vital signs and video transmission, energy efficient protocols, scheduling, optimization and energy consumption on a WBSN.
Wireless Body Area Network
Stalking is used to operate
the Body Area Network
This occurred at a Panera in Missouri.
This is "first" for this Target who believes she was actually implanted weeks earlier in Orlando, Florida. Because of the stalking, she decided to travel from Florida to Utah to a relative's home. Every stop she made, there was an attempt by a stalker with a phone, even under clothing, to put a phone to the back of her head. All of these instances were videoed.
She was traveling and stopped at a Panera for breakfast. Two young men came into the restaurant together, but one sat in front of her with a computer and the other sat behind her, putting a meter to the back of her head. At the time, it was a mystery as to what he was actually doing. Snot was dripping out of his nose and he seemed harmless, but later.....
The next day, after spending the night in a Miocrotel, the Target had been microwave radiated, had horrible pains in the lower back, had diaarhea and was awoken with a V2K that said, "Meow" like a hissing evil cat in a man's voice. When she tried to leave the motel, she noted that someone had been in her room and stolen her car keys.
The next morning on her travels, while sleeping in a roadside truck stop, she was woken up by two spoken words. So perhaps the meter to the back of her head was necessary was used to program or connect the implants, whereby some electronic processes were started.
The following days on her travels, she experienced her throat making repeated growling noises that wake her up when she is trying to go to sleep or which wake her up in the morning.
These two young men are stalkers, trained, programed to commit crimes. For these reasons, people need to be aware that people with meters, recording devices and phones do not have good intentions. They are sent by organized dispatchers planning to hurt you, read your implants or stimulate your implants.
You realize you are now hooked up to some type of radio communication in your head which makes a continuous high pitched ringing in the left ear.
Anyone with the personal access codes to your implants can operate them using an app on a cell phone over the internet!
WHAT ARE STALKERS DOING WHEN THEY POINT A PHONE AT YOU? Operating your Body Area Network!!!!
October 26, 2004 Embedded Staff
The range of medical devices and systems being implanted into the human body is increasing rapidly. Evolving from the first implanted pacemaker in the late 1950s, today's in-body devices are now being used to regulate bodily functions, stimulate nerves, and treat diseases such as Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, and epilepsy.
Figure 1: Almost every aspect of a patient's health can now be monitored or regulated by an implanted device
As Figure 1 shows, almost every aspect of a patient's health can now be monitored or regulated by an implanted device. These range of devices pose unique power, signal processing, and communication challenges for designers.
The 402- to 405-MHz band is well suited for in-body communications networks, due to signal propagation characteristics in the human body, compatibility with the incumbent users of the band (meteorological aids, such as weather balloons), and its international availability. The MICS standard allows 10 channels of 300kHz each and limits the output power to 25μW.
Medical devices can be categorized into those that use an internal nonrechargeable battery (such as pacemakers) and those that couple power inductively (such as cochlear implants). The former employs a duty-cycling operating system to conserve power. The transceiver is “off” most of the time, meaning the off-state current and the current required to periodically look for a communicating device must be extremely low (less than 1μA).
Sensors (Basel). 2011; 11(6): 5561–5595.
Published online 2011 May 26. doi: 10.3390/s110605561
This article has been corrected. See Sensors (Basel). 2012; 12(9): 12375.
Wireless sensor network (WSN) technologies are considered one of the key research areas in computer science and the healthcare application industries for improving the quality of life. The purpose of this paper is to provide a snapshot of current developments and future direction of research on wearable and implantable body area network systems for continuous monitoring of patients. This paper explains the important role of body sensor networks in medicine to minimize the need for caregivers and help the chronically ill and elderly people live an independent life, besides providing people with quality care. The paper provides several examples of state of the art technology together with the design considerations like unobtrusiveness, scalability, energy efficiency, security and also provides a comprehensive analysis of the various benefits and drawbacks of these systems.
IMPLANTS FOR MEDICAL USE AND FOR TORTURE
Above, you will see a diagram of a person who has been implanted with medical devices in what is called a Wireless Body Area Network (BAN). Implants are sensors that are connected with computers by means of a cell phone which communicates to medical, law enforcement and Homeland Securty. Also sensors in humans can be connected to implants in other humans and to the sensors in homes, furniture, vehicles, buildings, electrical wiring, roads, etc.
The implants in a BAN are very similar to a diagram of a person called a Targeted Individual who has been implanted with medical devices for the purposes of tracking, stalking, harassing, surveilling, torturing and killing them. They are tortured in their home, vehicle and public places outside and inside. This indicates that the infrastructure in the Smart Grid is being used against them instead of for medical purposes. Organized stalking is carried on by contractors, including police, firemen, medical EVAC personnel, veterans and others. See COPS program. Smart phones are being used to stimulate the implants in TI's.
Body Area Network is being used to torture people.
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Implants are Radio Frequency Devices (RFID), GPS Chips and UltrasoundID Chips, accelerometers, motion sensors, pressure sensors and neuromuscular stimulators which are stimulated by High Frequency Ultrasound which has 7 times the power limits of electromagnetic frequencies and travel 100 times faster through body tissues. This medical surveillance system can be triggered with an app on a mobile phone. Once connected, anyone who has the MAC address of your implants can turn them on and connect you with the implanted sensors in vehicles and buildings.
What are Biopotentials
This paper addresses the design challenges in wireless body area networks and gives an overview of recent technological achievements to tackle these challenges.It covers the areas of wireless communication, digital signal processing, sensing and read-out, and energy harvesting. In addition, this paper presents research platforms developed at IMEC/Holst Centre to illustrates how technological breakthroughs in these areas lead to the realization of ultra-low power wireless body area networks. It also demonstrates how the developed platform may helpresearchers to investigate emerging applications relying on wireless body area networks
Rahat Ali Khan1and Al-Sakib Khan Pathan, 2018
A biopotential is a voltage produced by a tissue of the body, particularly muscle tissue during a contraction. Electrocardiography depends on measurement of changing potentials in contracting heart muscle. Electromyography and electroencephalography function similarly in the diagnosis of neuromuscular and brain disorders, respectively.
This is called Signals Biology. A signal in biology is any kind of coded message sent from one organism to another, or from one place in an organism to another place, or inside cells.
In biology, especially in electrophysiology, a signal or biopotential is an electric quantity (voltage or current or field strength), that is caused by chemical reactions of charged ions. Biological signals can also be seen as an example of signal (electrical engineering). Another use of the term lies in the transfer of information between and within cells is signal transduction.
Biopotentials can be read by a bioamplifier, an electrophysiological device, a variation of the instrumentation amplifier, used to gather and increase the signal integrity of physiologic electrical activity for output to various sources. It may be an independent unit, or integrated into electrodes.
Electroencephalography (EEG) instrumentation acquires signals from muscles below the skin generated by brain cells. Simultaneously, EEG records the summed activity of tens of thousands to millions of neurons. As the amplifiers became small enough to integrate with the electrodes, EEG has become to have the potential for long term use as a brain-computer interface,
High performance differential amplifiers are used for amplification. Signals of interest are in the range of 0.5–100 V, over the frequency range of 1–50 Hz. Similar to EMG amplifiers, EEG benefits from the usage of integrated circuit. The chances of EEG is also mainly from the asymmetrical placement of electrodes, which leads to increased noise or offset. Some minimal specifications for a modern EEG amplifier includes:
"The communications performed in WBASN architecture as depicted in the figure above are divided into three tiers:(1) Tier 1—intra-BASN communications, (2) Tier 2—inter-BASN communications, and (3) Tier 3—beyond-BASN communications. It should be noted here that when a person in this scenario is moving, the body maybe in motion during that time. Hence, the positions of the sensors involved may change in this case, that is,the WBASNs are not generally regarded to be static."
National Institute of Information and Communications Technology Huan-Bang Li
Satellite based Body Area Network
Mohanchur Sarkar SATCOM Application Area Space Applications Centre,
ABSTRACT A Body Area Network is a Wireless Network of wearable computing devices. With the advancement of microelectronics, communication and medical sciences, a Body Area Network, with the help of bio-signal sensors can collect relevant vital medical parameters in real-time and transfer it into a network for proactive healthcare and emergency mitigation services. In this paper, an attempt has been made to bring out the challenges for the development of a Satellite based Body Area Network. The paper discusses on the feasibility for the development of such a network, considering the available and future technologies. In this paper, the author addresses on the architecture, design, and development issues of such a novel network and come up with the applications and outcomes with possible services, which this type of network can offer both on a national and global scale. A Satellite based Body Area Network does not exists now, so the author also tries to bring out the necessary technological challenges, which may be faced for the realization of such a network and deployment of associated services.
In-Body Nano-Communication based on either molecular, acoustic, or RF radio communication in the terahertz band supports the exchange of messages between these in-body devices.
Nano-communication is considered to become a major building block for many novel applications in the health care and fitness sector. Given the recent developments in the scope of nano machinery, coordination and control of these devices becomes the critical challenge to be solved. In-Body Nano-Communication based on either molecular, acoustic, or RF radio communication in the terahertz band supports the exchange of messages between these in-body devices. Yet, the control and communication with external units is not yet fully understood. In this paper, we investigate the challenges and opportunities of connecting Body Area Networks and other external gateways with in-body nano-devices, paving the road towards more scalable and efficient Internet of Nano Things (IoNT) systems. We derive a novel network architecture supporting the resulting requirements and, most importantly, investigate options for the simulation based performance evaluation of such novel concepts. Our study is concluded by a first look at the resulting security issues considering the high impact of potential misuse of the communication links.
Baris Atakan and Ozgur B. Akan, Koc University
Recent developments in nano and biotechnology enable promising therapeutic nanomachines (NMs) that operate on inter- or intracellular area of human body. The networks of such therapeutic NMs, body area nanonetworks (BAN2s), also empower sophisticated nanomedicine applications. In these applications, therapeutic NMs share information to perform computation and logic operations, and make decisions to treat complex diseases. Hence, one of the most challenging subjects for these sophisticated applications is the realization of BAN 2s through a
nanoscale communication paradigm. In this article, we introduce the concept of a BAN2 with molecular communication, where messenger molecules are used as communication carrier from a sender to a receiver NM. The current state of the art of molecular communication and BAN2 in nanomedicine applications is first presented. Then communication theoretical efforts are reviewed, and open research issues are given. The objective of this work is to introduce this novel and interdisciplinary research field and highlight major barriers toward its realization from the viewpoint of communication theory.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
A modeling and design approach is proposed for nanoparticle-based electromagnetic devices. First, the structure properties were analytically studied using Maxwell’s equations. The method provides us a robust link between nanoparticles electromagnetic response (amplitude and phase) and their geometrical characteristics (shape, geometry, and dimensions). Secondly, new designs based on “metamaterial” concept are proposed, demonstrating great performances in terms of wide-angle range functionality and multi/wide behavior, compared to conventional devices working at the same frequencies. The approach offers potential applications to build-up new advanced platforms for sensing and medical diagnostics. Therefore, in the final part of the article, some practical examples are reported such as cancer detection, water content measurements, chemical analysis, glucose concentration measurements and blood diseases monitoring.