What is a Wireless Body Area Network?

 

A wireless body area network (WBAN)  is a wireless network of wearable computing devices which may be implanted inside the body, worn or carried.  Implanted devices are networks consisting of several miniaturized body sensor units (BSUs) together with a single body central unit (BCU). Smart devices or cell phones act as a data hub, data gateway, providing a user interface to view and manage BAN applications.  A WBAN system can use WPAN wireless technologies as gateways to reach longer ranges. Through gateway devices, it is possible to connect the devices in the human body to the internet. This way, medical professionals can access patient data online using the internet independent of the patient location.. 

The system is touted as being healthcare, but in reality it is being used as an illegal surveillance which takes away the individuality, the privacy, the dignity and independence of a human being. Every activity is recorded. Someone watches every activity, including bathroom activities and having sex.  Every heartbeat and breath can be monitored and recorded. Note that they communicate using satellites, and drones. TORTURE AND DEATH CAN BE ACCOMPLISHED WITH THIS SYSTEM AND THE MURDERERS WILL NEVER BE BROUGHT TO JUSTICE.

 

​What is Biotelemetry?

Biotelemetry (or medical telemetry) involves the application of telemetry in biology, medicine, and other health care to remotely monitor various vital signs of ambulatory patients. Virtually any physiological signal could be transmitted.

 

A typical biotelemetry system is comprised of (1) sensors appropriate for the particular signals to be monitored, (2) a battery but some do not require batteries because they are stimulated with frequency or light (3) a radio antenna and receiver, and (4) a display unit or monitor to display information from patients.

Website WBAN Illustration.JPG

Sensors 2011, 11(4), 3717-3737; https://doi.org/10.3390/s110403717

A Very Low Power MAC (VLPM) Protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks

by Niamat Ullah *, Pervez Khan and Kyung Sup Kwak

Published: 25 March 2011

Abstract

:Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) consist of a limited number of battery operated nodes that are used to monitor the vital signs of a patient over long periods of time without restricting the patient’s movements. They are an easy and fast way to diagnose the patient’s status and to consult the doctor. Device as well as network lifetime are among the most important factors in a WBAN. Prolonging the lifetime of the WBAN strongly depends on controlling the energy consumption of sensor nodes. To achieve energy efficiency, low duty cycle MAC protocols are used, but for medical applications, especially in the case of pacemakers where data have time-limited relevance, these protocols increase latency which is highly undesirable and leads to system instability. In this paper, we propose a low power MAC protocol (VLPM) based on existing wakeup radio approaches which reduce energy consumption as well as improving the response time of a node. We categorize the traffic into uplink and downlink traffic. The nodes are equipped with both a low power wake-up transmitter and receiver. The low power wake-up receiver monitors the activity on channel all the time with a very low power and keeps the MCU (Micro Controller Unit) along with main radio in sleep mode. When a node [BN or BNC (BAN Coordinator)] wants to communicate with another node, it uses the low-power radio to send a wakeup packet, which will prompt the receiver to power up its primary radio to listen for the message that follows shortly. The wake-up packet contains the desired node’s ID along with some other information to let the targeted node to wake-up and take part in communication and let all other nodes to go to sleep mode quickly. The VLPM protocol is proposed for applications having low traffic conditions. For high traffic rates, optimization is needed. Analytical results show that the proposed protocol outperforms both synchronized and unsynchronized MAC protocols like T-MAC, SCP-MAC, B-MAC and X-MAC in terms of energy consumption and response time.

Survey of WBSNs for Pre-Hospital Assistance: Trends to Maximize the Network Lifetime and Video Transmission Techniques

by Enrique Gonzalez, Published: 22 May 2015

Abstract

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This survey aims to encourage the multidisciplinary communities to join forces for innovation in the mobile health monitoring area. Specifically, multidisciplinary innovations in medical emergency scenarios can have a significant impact on the effectiveness and quality of the procedures and practices in the delivery of medical care. Wireless body sensor networks (WBSNs) are a promising technology capable of improving the existing practices in condition assessment and care delivery for a patient in a medical emergency. This technology can also facilitate the early interventions of a specialist physician during the pre-hospital period. WBSNs make possible these early interventions by establishing remote communication links with video/audio support and by providing medical information such as vital signs, electrocardiograms, etc. in real time. This survey focuses on relevant issues needed to understand how to setup a WBSN for medical emergencies. These issues are: monitoring vital signs and video transmission, energy efficient protocols, scheduling, optimization and energy consumption on a WBSN.<